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谈及中美贸易摩擦,中国常驻WTO代表团大使张向晨连用两个反问句

5月16日,彭博社刊发中国常驻世贸组织代表团大使张向晨专访文章,从中美贸易摩擦等热点话题切入。

张向晨认为,中美在经贸领域显然存在利益交集,但需要以诚意来寻找。中美两国之间很多问题具有复杂性,通过沟通、谈判解决彼此的贸易关注是一项长期的任务。举起大棒,是错误地对待别人的问题,放下大棒,才能正确地面对自己的问题。“短期内,我也相信中美有足够的智慧找到办法解决双边经贸关系中的紧迫问题,拭目以待。”

针对彭博社援引美国大使丹尼斯·谢伊的话称“中国是‘破坏全球开放和公平贸易体制’的‘单边主义者’。并称中国是‘最具保护主义,重商主义的经济体’,自称是‘自由贸易和全球贸易体系的捍卫者’。”张向晨连用两个反问句予以回击:“我在世贸组织总理事会上讲过,衡量单边主义的标准只能是多边规则,而不是凭什么人乱扣帽子。你见过主动降低关税、开放金融市场的‘保护主义者’吗?你见过积极筹备进口博览会、欢迎各国出口至本国市场的‘重商主义者’吗?

张向晨

本月早些时候,中美两国举行了首轮贸易谈判。对此,彭博社在提问中称,在北京结束的中美高层贸易谈判表明双方差距巨大。据说美国已要求中国在2020年前将贸易顺差至少减少2000亿美元,并且不得对美国拟议的关税措施进行报复。

在被问及上述要求是否符合WTO规则,中国接受这些要求的可能性有多大时,张向晨表示,在多边贸易体制上,曾有过极个别“进口承诺”的事例。这种做法违反世贸组织“非歧视原则”,早已成为历史陈迹。而所谓的“自愿出口限制”,毫无例外地都不是“自愿”的,也为多边纪律所不容。“美国一方面指责中国政府干预经济,一方面又要求中国以政府命令方式增加进口、限制出口、减少过剩产能,这在逻辑上是说不通的。贸易是你情我愿的交易,政府可以做一些贸易促进工作,但不能用枪顶着企业去做。”

上个月,美方扬言考虑对中国1500亿美元商品加征关税。对于彭博社有关中国还有什么工具可以抵消加征关税威胁的提问,张向晨表示,作为一个大国,中国的政策工具箱里当然会有“十八般兵器”,但绝不会轻易使用。用不用、用哪件、何时用,需要根据形势发展而定,但目的只有一个,恢复正常的贸易秩序,“止戈为武”。

同样是在上月,中国分别就美“301条款”和“232条款”措施在WTO争端解决机制下提出诉讼。张向晨告诉彭博社,关于“301条款”案,中方的目标是将这只猛兽重新关进世贸规则的笼子里,不再让它兴风作浪。关于“232条款”案,中方希望借此恢复所有成员对“国家安全”问题原有的审慎态度。

根据商务部资料显示,今年53岁的张向晨(1965年生人)目前为中国常驻世贸组织代表、特命全权大使。此前,他为中国国际贸易谈判副代表,是国内精通世界贸易的专家之一,主张世界贸易自由化、反对贸易战。

据悉,张向晨曾于2008年至2011年在中国驻日内瓦世贸组织办事处工作,就任代表团副团长。

彭博社曾报道称,特朗普在美国总统大选获胜后,张向晨是首位向外国商界介绍中国领导层如何看待世界经济未来的官员。在北京一场中国美国商会举行的晚宴上,他就新形势下应避免贸易战进行了阐述。

以下为彭博社采访全文,共六个问题,商务部全文翻译,转自微信公号“商务微新闻”:

5月16日,彭博社刊发中国常驻世贸组织代表团大使张向晨专访文章,从中美贸易摩擦等热点话题切入,六问六答,金句频出。

谈及中美贸易摩擦,张向晨大使为何连用两个反问句?

Q&A

1、彭博社:中国在WTO就美国“301条款”和“232条款”下的贸易措施提出诉讼。最新进展怎样?解决争议的可能性如何?

China has filed complaints about the U.S. trade actions under Section 301 and Section 232 at the WTO. What’s the latest progress? What’s the likelihood of getting a dispute settlement?

张向晨大使:上月初,中国分别就美“301条款”和“232条款”措施在WTO争端解决机制下提出诉讼。这两个条款违反哪些规则、中方起诉背景和所持立场,我不一一赘述。

China submitted complaints to the WTO dispute settlement mechanism on the US Section 301 and Section 232 measures early last month. I would not elaborate on the measures or how they have violated the WTO rules, which I had clearly stated at the WTO general council meeting last week.

关于“301条款”案,我们的目标是将这只猛兽重新关进世贸规则的笼子里,再也不让它跑出来兴风作浪。关于“232条款”案,我们希望借此恢复所有成员对“国家安全”问题原有的审慎态度。

Rather, I want to emphasize that our objective for the Section 301 case is to lock this beast back into the cage of the WTO rules, stop it from causing any further harm to any members. By initiating the Section 232 case, we want to restore the self-restraint and caution exercised by Members with regard to the “Security Exceptions” clause.

中国将按照WTO争端解决程序继续推进这两项诉讼。WTO争端解决机制应当有能力解决这些争议,维护正常的国际经贸秩序,这正是争端解决机制建立的初衷。

China will proceed with these two cases in accordance with the WTO dispute settlement procedures. I am confident that the WTO dispute settlement mechanism is capable of resolving these disputes and safeguarding the normal order of international trade, which is exactly the intent of establishing the dispute settlement mechanism.

2、彭博社:美国大使丹尼斯·谢伊最近在世贸组织总理事会上说,中国是“破坏全球开放和公平贸易体制”的“单边主义者”。他还称中国是“最具保护主义,重商主义的经济体”,自称是“自由贸易和全球贸易体系的捍卫者”。你的论点是什么?其他成员对此如何看?

U.S. Ambassador Dennis Shea recently said at a WTO general council meeting that China is the "unilateralist" which "undermines the global system of open and fair trade". He also called China "the most protectionist, mercantilist economy" that claims it is the "defender of free trade and the global trading system." What’s your counter-argument and how do other members view this?

张向晨大使:我在世贸组织总理事会上讲过,衡量单边主义的标准只能是多边规则,而不是凭什么人乱扣帽子。你见过主动降低关税、开放金融市场的“保护主义者”吗?你见过积极筹备进口博览会、欢迎各国出口至本国市场的“重商主义者”吗?

As I was saying at the meeting, it is the multilateral rules which can serve as the one and only criterion to determine unilateralism rather than throwing labels around. Have you ever seen a “protectionist” who is voluntarily cutting tariffs and liberalizing its financial market? Have you ever seen a "mercantilist" who is hosting an International Import Expo and welcoming other countries to export to its market?

中国也很愿意和美国在WTO讨论一下什么是“单边主义”。我们应当通过讨论和谈判解决彼此的贸易关注。在WTO框架下讨论、谈判,包括诉诸争端解决机制来裁决彼此的分歧,这些都是多边主义的体现。反之,如果所有成员都按照自己的立场、标准对其他成员进行评判,并任意采取制裁措施,例如像“301条款”这样的措施,那就是对多边主义的破坏。

China is very much willing to further discuss with the U.S. regarding “unilateralism" in the WTO. Trade concerns should be addressed through discussions and negotiations under the WTO framework, including resorting to the dispute settlement mechanism. This is the way multilateralism works. By contrast, if members take WTO law in their own hands, judge and sanction others by their own standards, such as the Section 301 measures, it would be a breach of multilateralism.

至于其他成员对此评论,建议你看一下总理事会各成员的发言。此次会议上,100多个世贸成员在总理事会上单独或者联合发表声明,要求尽快启动上诉机构成员遴选,反对美国依据“232条款”、“301条款”采取的单边行动和贸易保护主义措施,呼吁维护多边贸易体制的权威和稳定。这些立场世贸组织都记录在案,历史不应随意被人解读,更不应被歪曲篡改。

As for the comments from other members at the meeting, I would suggest you look at the statements by relevant members. More than 100 WTO members have either spoken individually or co-sponsored joint statements at the General Council meeting, urging members to launch the new appellate body member selection process without delay, opposing the unilateral and protectionist actions taken by the U.S. based on Section 232 and Section 301, as well as calling for safeguarding the credibility and stability of the multilateral trading system. These statements and positions are well recorded by the WTO secretariat. History is not and should not be wrongfully interpreted or twisted.

3、彭博社:你有数十年与美国谈判的经验。你对目前的中美贸易摩擦有何看法?如何解决呢?

You have decades of experience negotiating with the U.S. What’s your view on the current China-U.S. trade dispute and how can it be solved?

张向晨大使:时过境迁,过去的经验未必有用。21世纪不是20世纪80年代,北京也不是东京。

Water flows, things change. Past experience is not necessarily helpful in tackling today’s problems. We must be clear that the 21st century is not the 1980s, and Beijing is not Tokyo.

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